Immune Support

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  1. Panossian A,�Davtyan T,�Gukassyan N,�Gukasova G,�Mamikonyan G,�Gabrielian E,�Wikman G. Effect of andrographolide and Kan Jang--fixed combination of extract SHA-10 and extract SHE-3--on proliferation of human lymphocytes, production of cytokines and immune activation markers in the whole blood cells culture. Phytomedicine. 2002 Oct; 9(7): 598-605

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=12487323

*Quick Summary of Study: Tissue culture study examining the effects of the herbal combination of Andrographis and Eleuthero Root on the activation and proliferation of certain white blood cells.

 

Abstract

“The immunomodulatory properties of a diterpene lactone andrographolide and Kan Jang--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 and Eleutherococcus senticosus extract SHE-3 were investigated. Their role on spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and on production of interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were determined in vitro. Proliferation of PBL induced by PHA was enhanced by co stimulation with andrographolide and Kan Jang. At the same time andrographolide and Kan Jang inhibit spontaneous proliferation of PBL in vitro. These preparations also have effect on the formation of INF-gamma, TNF-alpha and some immune activation markers such as neopterin (Neo), beta-2-microglobulin (beta2MG), and soluble receptor for interleukin-2 (sIL-2R or sCD25) in blood cells culture. Andrographolide and Kan Jang stimulate the INF-gamma, Neopterin and beta2MG formation, but do not have any significant effect on the production of INF-gamma and Neopterin in PHA stimulated blood cells. An opposite effect on these immune makers was observed in the PHA-stimulated blood cells: both andrographolide and Kan Jang increase the formation of TNF-alpha and beta2MG in cultivated whole blood cells. Thus, andrographolide and Kan Jang can have an in vitro effect on the activation and proliferation of immunocompetent cells as well on the production of key cytokines and immune activation markers. The results show an overall higher effect of the fixed combination as compared with the equivalent amount of the pure substance andrographolide. The data are consistent with results from clinical studies of Kan Jang and contributed to a better understanding of these results.”

 

  1. Kulichenko LL,�Kireyeva LV,�Malyshkina EN,�Wikman G. A randomized, controlled study of Kan Jang versus amantadine in the treatment of influenza in Volgograd. J Herb Pharmacother.�2003; 3(1):77-93.

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15277072?dopt=Citatio

 

*Quick Summary of Study: Clinical study found that the combination of Andrographis and Eleuthero Root was able to reduce the duration of illness and reduce the frequency of post-influenza complications.

 

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“Two randomized, parallel-group clinical studies with a verum and a control group were performed to investigate the effect of a standardized extract (SHA-10) of Andrographis panaiculata (N.) fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of diagnosed influenza viral infection. The pilot study was performed on 540 patients with 71 Kan Jang-treated patients with the second phase conducted enrolling 66 patients. The differences in the duration of sick leave and frequency of post-influenza complications indicate that the Kan Jang phytopreparation not only contributes to quicker recovery, but also reduces the risk of post-influenza complications. Kan Jang was well tolerated by patients.”

 

  1. Saxena RC,�Singh R,�Kumar P,�Yadav SC,�Negi MP,�Saxena VS,�Joshua AJ,�Vijayabalaji V,�Goudar KS,�Venkateshwarlu K,�Amit A. A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical evaluation of extract of Andrographis paniculata (KalmCold) in patients with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine.�2010 Mar; 17(3-4):178-85.

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20092985?dopt=Citation

*Quick Summary of Study: Controlled clinical trial shows that Andrographis extract was able to reduce symptoms in patients with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection compared to control.

Abstract

“A randomized, double blind placebo controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of KalmCold, an extract of Andrographis paniculata, in patients with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). The assessment involved quantification of symptom scores by Visual Analogue Scale. Nine self evaluated symptoms of cough, expectoration, nasal discharge, headache, fever, sore throat, earache, malaise/fatigue and sleep disturbance were scored. A total of 223 patients of both sexes were randomized in two groups which received either KalmCold (200 mg/day) or placebo in a double blind manner. In both the treatments, mean scores of all symptoms showed a decreasing trend from day 1 to day 3 but from day 3 to day 5 most of the symptoms in placebo treated group either remained unchanged (cough, headache and earache) or got aggravated (sore throat and sleep disturbance) whereas in KalmCold treated group all symptoms showed a decreasing trend. Within groups, mean scores of symptoms in both the groups decreased significantly (p < or = 0.05) from day 1 to day 3 and day 5 while from day 3 to day 5 all symptoms except expectoration in placebo group did not improve significantly whereas in KalmCold treated group all symptoms improved significantly (p < or = 0.05) except earache. Comparing mean between both groups, all symptoms at day 1 and day 3 were found to be the same while at day 5 all symptoms except earache in KalmCold treated group improved significantly (p < or = 0.05) than placebo group. Similarly, within groups, overall scores of all symptoms in both the groups decreased significantly (p < or = 0.05) from day 1 to day 3 and day 5 while from day 3 to day 5 placebo group did not improve significantly whereas KalmCold treated group showed significant improvement (p < or = 0.05). On between groups analysis, KalmCold group showed significant reduction (p < or = 0.05) in overall symptom scores as compared to placebo group. In both placebo and KalmCold treated groups, there were only a few minor adverse effects with no significant difference in occurrence (Z = 0.63; p > 0.05). The comparison of overall efficacy of KalmCold over placebo was found to be significant (p < or = 0.05) and it was 2.1 times (52.7%) higher than placebo. The findings of this study revealed that KalmCold was effective in reducing symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection.”



  1. Saini A,�Sharma S,�Chhibber S. Protective efficacy of�Emblica�officinalis against Klebsiella pneumoniae induced pneumonia in mice. Indian J Med Res.�2008 Aug;128(2):188-93.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19001683

 

*Quick Summary of Study: Animal study finds that long term supplementation of amla fruit powder can have a positive effect on Macrophage, a white blood cell that engulfs bacteria, activity in mice challenged with Klebsiella pnemoniae.

Abstract

BACKGROUND &#38; OBJECTIVES:

Emblica�officinalis (amla), which is a good source of vitamin C, has been shown to be beneficial due to its immune system enhancing property coupled with its tonifying and antiageing effect. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of E. officinalis feeding on the susceptibility of experimental mice to respiratory tract infection induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

METHODS:

The effect of short- (15 days) and long (30 days)-term feeding of�amla�in mice on the course of K. pneumoniae ATCC43816 infection in lungs was studied, in terms of bacterial colonization, macrophage activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite production in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha level in serum was also assessed.

RESULTS:

Though there was a decrease in bacterial colonization after short-term feeding, it was not significant. On the contrary, the decrease in bacterial load was significant (P < 0.05) on long-term feeding. The operative mechanisms in terms of lipid peroxidation, phagocytosis and nitrite production were studied by estimating their levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Maximum decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increase in phagocytic activity and nitrite levels on long-term feeding was seen.

INTERPRETATION &#38; CONCLUSION:

These results suggest that dietary supplementation with�amla�protects against bacterial colonization of lungs on long-term feeding in experimental model. Further studies need to be conducted to understand the actual mechanism.

  1. Hazra B,�Sarkar R,�Biswas S,�Mandal N. Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and�Emblica�officinalis. BMC Complement Altern Med.�2010 May 13;10:20.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2887379/?tool=pubmed

 

*Quick Summary of Study: In depth study of the antioxidant properties of three fruits, including amla, that are largely consumed in the traditional Indian diet. The article examined the nutritional content of these fruits and found a direct correlation between flavonoid and phenolic content to increased antioxidant capabilities which was demonstrated in vitro. The researches went on to examine the ability of these fruit extracts to activate antioxidant enzymes within a mouse model and the results showed a significant increase in activity of these enzymes.

 

Abstract

“BACKGROUND:

Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and�Emblica�officinalis�fruit�extracts.

METHODS:

The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts.

RESULTS:

The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied�fruit�extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards.

CONCLUSIONS:

The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and�Emblicaofficinalis, imposes the fact that they might be useful as potent sources of natural antioxidant.”

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