Putaala H,ï¿½Barrangou R,ï¿½Leyer GJ,ï¿½Ouwehand AC,ï¿½Hansen EB,ï¿½Romero DA,ï¿½Rautonen N. Analysis of the human intestinal epithelial cell transcriptional response toï¿½Lactobacillus acidophilus,ï¿½Lactobacillusï¿½salivarius, Bifidobacterium lactis and Escherichia coli. Benef Microbes.ï¿½2010 Sep 1; 1(3):283-95.
*Quick Summary of Study: A tissue culture study examining the effects that probiotic and pathogenic strains of bacteria have on human epithelial cells.
The complex microbial population residing in the human gastrointestinal tract consists of commensal, potential pathogenic and beneficial species, which are probably perceived differently by the host and consequently could be expected to trigger specific transcriptional responses. Here, we provide a comparative analysis of the global in vitro transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells to Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFMï¿½, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 420, and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Interestingly, L. salivarius Ls-33 DCE-induced changes were overall more similar to those of B. lactis 420 than to L. acidophilus NCFMï¿½, which is consistent with previously observed in vivo immunomodulation properties. In the gene ontology and pathway analyses both specific and unspecific changes were observed. Common to all was the regulation of apoptosis and adipogenesis, and lipid-metabolism related regulation by the probiotics. Specific changes such as regulation of cell-cell adhesion by B. lactis 420, superoxide metabolism by L. salivarius Ls-33, and regulation of MAPK pathway by L. acidophilus NCFMï¿½ were noted. Furthermore, fundamental differences were observed between the pathogenic and probiotic treatments in the Toll-like receptor pathway, especially for adapter molecules with a lowered level of transcriptional activation of MyD88, TRIF, IRAK1 and TRAF6 by probiotics compared to EHEC. The results in this study provide insights into the relationship between probiotics and human intestinal epithelial cells, notably with regard to strain-specific responses, and highlight the differences between transcriptional responses to pathogenic and probiotic bacteria
*Quick Summary of Study: This review article talks about the vast diversity of microorganisms that reside in the lower gastrointestinal tract and discusses their role in human health and disease prevention. The article also explains the various benefits and limitations that encapsulated probiotic supplements have on human health.
The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining health. Alterations of the gut bacterial population have been associated with a number of diseases. Past and recent studies suggest that one can positively modify the contents of the gut microbiota by introducing prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and other therapeutics. This paper focuses on probiotic modulation of the gut microbiota by their delivery to the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). There are numerous obstacles to overcome before microorganisms can be utilized as therapeutics. One important limitation is the delivery of viable cells to the lower GIT without a significant loss of cell viability and metabolic features through the harsh conditions of the upper GIT. Microencapsulation has been shown to overcome this, with various types of microcapsules available for resolving this limitation. This paper discusses the gut microbiota and its role in disease, with a focus on microencapsulated probiotics and their potentials and limitations.
*Quick Summary of Study: A review article that explains what parameters are used to defined a probiotic organism. The article goes on to further explain about the roles that these organisms have on intestinal immunity and allergy treatment.
Probiotics and prebiotics, alone or together (synbiotics), can influence the intestinal microbiota and modulate the immune response. They may therefore be tools that can prevent or alleviate certain pathologies involving the gut immune system, such as allergies for which no treatment is yet available. This review focuses first on the definitions of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics and key cells in the gut immune system. It then discusses their effects on mucosal immune stimulation. Experimental findings suggest that different probiotic species have similar effects on innate immunity by improving the mechanisms of pathogen destruction. On the contrary, their impacts seem to be variable on the adaptive immune system. Prebiotics can also exert an influence on the gut immune system via the stimulation of the autochthonous bacteria metabolism. Finally, this review focuses on the effects of food supplements on allergy. Different studies performed in humans or rodents have supported a potential role for selected probiotics and prebiotics in reducing some allergic parameters. Probiotic effects on allergy treatment are unclear, especially in human studies. However, they are potentially effective at short-term for prevention when they are administered in perinatal conditions. A clinical study performed with an infant cohort revealed a beneficial effect of prebiotics in preventing allergic manifestations at long-term. Further studies are nonetheless essential to confirm these findings. Food supplements offer potential tools for the prevention or treatment of allergy, but insufficient evidence is available at present to recommend their use in clinical practice.
Madsen K,ï¿½Cornish A,ï¿½Soper P,ï¿½McKaigney C,ï¿½Jijon H,ï¿½Yachimec C,ï¿½Doyle J,ï¿½Jewell L,ï¿½De Simone C. Probiotic bacteria enhance murine and human intestinal epithelial barrier function.Gastroenterology.ï¿½2001 Sep;121(3):580-91.
*Quick Summary of Study: This review article discusses the role that probiotics have on intestinal immunity and explains the potential mechanism in which probiotics aid in pathogenic bacteria destruction.
Probiotics and prebiotics, alone or together (synbiotics), can influence the intestinal microbiota and modulate the immune response. They may therefore be tools that can prevent or alleviate certain pathologies involving the gut immune system, such as allergies for which no treatment is yet available. This review focuses first on the definitions of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics and key cells in the gut immune system. It then discusses their effects on mucosal immune stimulation. Experimental findings suggest that different probiotic species have similar effects on innate immunity by improving the mechanisms of pathogen destruction. On the contrary, their impacts seem to be variable on the adaptive immune system. Prebiotics can also exert an influence on the gut immune system via the stimulation of the autochthonous bacteria metabolism. Finally, this review focuses on the effects of food supplements on allergy. Different studies performed in humans or rodents have supported a potential role for selected probiotics and prebiotics in reducing some allergic parameters. Probiotic effects on allergy treatment are unclear, especially in human studies. However, they are potentially effective at short-term for prevention when they are administered in perinatal conditions. A clinical study performed with an infant cohort revealed a beneficial effect of prebiotics in preventing allergic manifestations at long-term. Further studies are nonetheless essential to confirm these findings. Food supplements offer potential tools for the prevention or treatment of allergy, but insufficient evidence is available at present to recommend their use in clinical practice
O'Mahony L,ï¿½Feeney M,ï¿½O'Halloran S,ï¿½Murphy L,ï¿½Kiely B,ï¿½Fitzgibbon J,ï¿½Lee G,ï¿½O'Sullivan G,ï¿½Shanahan F,ï¿½Collins JK. Probiotic impact on microbial flora, inflammation and tumour development in IL-10 knockout mice. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.ï¿½2001 Aug; 15(8):1219-25.
*Quick Summary of Study: Animal study that explored the beneficial role that probiotic supplementation had on intestinal health in mice compared to the control group.
The enteric bacterial flora has been implicated in the pathogenesis of enterocolitis and colon cancer in C57BL/6 IL-10 knockout mice. Probiotic Lactobacilli modify the enteric flora and are thought to have a beneficial effect on enterocolitis. We conducted a controlled feeding trial in IL-10 knockout mice using the probiotic Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salivarius UCC118.
To determine the effect of probiotic consumption on the gastrointestinal microflora, tumour development and colitis in IL-10 knockout mice.
Twenty IL-10 knockout mice were studied (10 consumed probiotic organisms in milk and 10 consumed unmodified milk) for 16 weeks. Faecal microbial analysis was performed weekly to enumerate excretion of the probiotic UCC118, total lactobacilli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteroides, coliforms, bifidobacteria and enterococci. At sacrifice, the small and large bowel were microbiologically and histologically assessed.
L. salivarius UCC118 was detected in feces from all mice in the probiotic fed group, but not the control group. Faecal coliform and enterococci levels were significantly reduced in probiotic fed animals compared to the controls (P < 0.05). At sacrifice, a significant reduction in C. perfringens numbers was observed in the test mice (P < 0.05). There were no fatalities in the test group compared to two deaths from fulminant colitis in the control group. Only one test mouse developed colonic adenocarcinoma compared to five in the control group. Test animal mucosal inflammation consistently scored lower than that of the control mice.
In this placebo controlled trial, modification of enteric flora in IL-10 knockout mice by probiotic lactobacilli was associated with reduced prevalence of colon cancer and mucosal inflammatory activity
Pool-Zobel BL,ï¿½Neudecker C,ï¿½Domizlaff I,ï¿½Ji S,ï¿½Schillinger U,ï¿½Rumney C,ï¿½Moretti M,ï¿½Vilarini I,ï¿½Scassellati-Sforzolini R,ï¿½Rowland I. Lactobacillus- and bifidobacterium-mediated antigenotoxicity in the colon of rats. Nutr Cancer.ï¿½1996; 26(3):365-80.
*Quick Summary of Study: Animal study investigates the preventive anti-genotoxic role that probiotic organisms have on colonic cells derived from rats that were treated with mutagenic toxins.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are proposed to have several beneficial effects, including the inactivation of carcinogens. We have studied the potential of Lactobacillus acidophilus (from a commercially available yogurt), Lactobacillus gasseri (P79), Lactobacillus confusus (DSM20196), Streptococcus thermophilus (NCIM 50083), Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum (from human infant stool) to prevent the induction of DNA damage by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 7.5 mg/kg body wt) in colon cells of the rat. Using the new technique of single cell microgel electrophoresis, all investigated strains were antigenotoxic toward MNNG after a single dose of 10(10) viable cells/kg body wt p.o. eight hours before the carcinogen. One-half and one-tenth of this initial dose resulted in a loss of protective activity. High doses of heat-treated L. acidophilus strains were also not antigenotoxic. One mechanism of the preventive effect could be that bacterial metabolites or components are responsible. Accordingly, selected examples were investigated in vitro in colon cells of the rat. Metabolically active L. acidophilus cells, as well as an acetone extract of the culture, prevented MNNG-induced DNA damage. Different cell fractions from L. acidophilus (cytoplasm, cell wall skeleton, cell wall) were devoid of antigenotoxic activity, whereas the peptidoglycan fraction and whole freeze-dried cells were antigenotoxic. As a second carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was used. A dose- and time-response study was first performed to assess the effects of DMH in several segments of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Exposure for 16 hours to 15 or 25 mg DMH/kg body wt p.o. induced DNA damage in cells of the distal colon of rats, whereas no cytotoxicity was seen. Pretreatment orally with LAB on four consecutive mornings before DMH gavage (8 hours after the last LAB application) revealed that L. acidophilus, L. confusus, L. gasseri, B. longum, and B. breve inhibited the genotoxic effect of DMH. One of four S. thermophilus and one of three Lactobacillus delbrueckeii ssp. bulgaricus strains were also protective. Heat-treated L. acidophilus did not inhibit DMH-induced genotoxicity. A few aliquots of the colon cells were processed immunohistochemically for the presence of the "proliferation cell nuclear antigen" (PCNA). DMH treatment did not increase PCNA, nor was there any modulation by LAB. The effect of L. acidophilus on foreign compound-metabolizing enzymes (Phase I and Phase II) in liver and colon cells of rats revealed only one parameter to be modulated, namely, a two- to three-fold increase in the levels of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase. The meaning of this finding, in terms of possible chemoprevention by LAB, remains unclear. In conclusion, our studies show that most, but not all, LAB tested could strongly inhibit genotoxicity in the GI tract of the rat and that viable LAB organisms are required for the protective effect in vivo. The comet assay technique is a powerful tool to elucidate such in vivo antigenotoxic activities in tumor target tissues.
- Blackmore KM, Lesosky M, Barnett H, et al.ï¿½Vitamin D From Dietary Intake and Sunlight Exposure and the Risk of Hormone-Receptor-Defined Breast Cancer.ï¿½Am J Epidemiol.ï¿½2008 Oct 15; 168(8):915-24.
*Quick Summary of Study: This epidemiological study investigate the association between vitamin D intake at specific ages and the prevalence of combined estrogen- receptor and progesterone-receptor defined breast cancer in woman living in Ontario Canada.
Evidence has emerged for a role of vitamin D in the development of breast cancer, and there is some suggestion that its antiproliferative effect is greater in hormone-receptor-positive cells. Few epidemiologic studies have considered the association between vitamin D and hormone-receptor-defined breast cancer, and the results are conflicting. Considering 759 cases and 1,135 controls from a case-control study (Ontario, Canada, 2003-2005), the authors examined the association between vitamin D intake at specific ages and combined estrogen-receptor- (ER) and progesterone-receptor- (PR) defined breast cancer. While increased intake of vitamin D (from the sun and diet) was most consistently associated with a significantly reduced risk of ER+/PR+ tumors (e.g., odds ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.97 for use of cod liver oil during adolescence), comparable nonsignificant associations were found for receptor-negative (ER-/PR-) (odds ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.04) and mixed (ER+/PR-) (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.51, 1.22) tumors. This study suggests that vitamin D is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer regardless of ER/PR status of the tumor. Future studies with a larger number of receptor-negative and mixed tumors are required.
- Holick MF.ï¿½Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease.ï¿½Am J Clin Nutr.ï¿½2004 Dec; 80(6 Suppl):1678S-88S.
*Quick Summary of Study: This article explains the essential role that vitamin D has on human health and explains how increasing deficiencies from lack of sun exposure and dietary inadequacies can lead to certain ailments.
Most humans depend on sun exposure to satisfy their requirements for vitamin D. Solar ultraviolet B photons are absorbed by 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin, leading to its transformation to previtamin D3, which is rapidly converted to vitamin D3. Season, latitude, time of day, skin pigmentation, aging, sunscreen use, and glass all influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Once formed, vitamin D3 is metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and then in the kidney to its biologically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic among both children and adults in the United States. Vitamin D deficiency not only causes rickets among children but also precipitates and exacerbates osteoporosis among adults and causes the painful bone disease osteomalacia. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risks of deadly cancers, cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Maintaining blood concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D above 80 nmol/L (approximately 30 ng/mL) not only is important for maximizing intestinal calcium absorption but also may be important for providing the extrarenal 1alpha-hydroxylase that is present in most tissues to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Although chronic excessive exposure to sunlight increases the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer, the avoidance of all direct sun exposure increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency, which can have serious consequences. Monitoring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations yearly should help reveal vitamin D deficiencies. Sensible sun exposure (usually 5-10 min of exposure of the arms and legs or the hands, arms, and face, 2 or 3 times per week) and increased dietary and supplemental vitamin D intakes are reasonable approaches to guarantee vitamin D sufficiency.
*Quick Summary of Study: This article explains the growing concern over vitamin D deficiencies and how these deficiencies are associated with increased risk of several diseases such as osteopenia, autoimmune disorders and certain cancers.
Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a pandemic. The major cause of vitamin D deficiency is the lack of appreciation that sun exposure in moderation is the major source of vitamin D for most humans. Very few foods naturally contain vitamin D, and foods that are fortified with vitamin D are often inadequate to satisfy either a child's or an adult's vitamin D requirement. Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets in children and will precipitate and exacerbate osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures in adults. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of common cancers, autoimmune diseases, hypertension, and infectious diseases. A circulating level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of >75 nmol/L, or 30 ng/mL, is required to maximize vitamin D's beneficial effects for health. In the absence of adequate sun exposure, at least 800ï¿½1000 IU vitamin D3/d may be needed to achieve this in children and adults. Vitamin D2may be equally effective for maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D when given in physiologic concentrations.
Hayes CE, Nashold FE, Spach KM, Pedersen LB. The immunological functions of the vitamin D endocrine system. Cell Mol Biol. 2003; 49(2):277-300.ï¿½
*Quick Summary of Study: This review articles focuses on role that vitamin D plays in the immune system; from the mechanism in which vitamin D may activate certain white blood cells, to its role in regulating inflammation and clearing mycobacterial infections, as well as its role with the endocrine system in establishing self-tolerance and possibly prevention of auto-immune diseases.
The discoveries that activated macrophages produce 1alpha25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25-(OH)2D3), and that immune system cells express the vitamin D receptor (VDR), suggested that the vitamin D endocrine system influences immune system function. In this review, we compare and contrast how 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis and degradation is regulated in kidney cells and activated macrophages, summarize data on hormone receptor function and expression in lymphocytes and myeloid lineage cells, and discuss how locally-produced 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 may activate a negative feed-back loop at sites of inflammation. Studies of immunity in humans and animals lacking VDR function, or lacking vitamin D, are viewed to gain insight into the immunological functions of the vitamin D endocrine system. The strong associations between poor vitamin D nutrition, particular VDR alleles, and susceptibility to chronic mycobacterial infections, together with evidence that 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 served as a vaccine adjuvant enhancing antibody-mediated immunity, suggest a model wherein high levels of 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3-liganded VDR transcriptional activity may promote the CD4+ T helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated and mucosal antibody responses to cutaneous antigens in vivo. We also review a diverse and rapidly growing body of epidemiological, climatological, genetic, nutritional and biological evidence indicating that the vitamin D endocrine system functions in the establishment and/or maintenance of immunological self tolerance. Studies done in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and transplantation support a model wherein the 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 may augment the function of suppressor T cells that maintain self tolerance to organ-specific self antigens. The recent progress in infectious disease, autoimmunity and transplantation has stimulated a gratifying renaissance of interest in the vitamin D endocrine system and its role in immunological health.
Lin R, White JH. The pleiotropic actions of vitamin D. Bioessays. 2004; 26(1):21-28.
General knowledge of the role of vitamin D3 in human physiology has been shaped by its discovery as a preventive agent of nutritional rickets, a defect in bone development due to inadequate uptake of dietary calcium. Studies on the function of the hormonal form of vitamin D3, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, have been greatly accelerated by the molecular cloning and structural analysis of the vitamin D3 receptor, which is a ligand-activated regulator of gene transcription. Molecular genetic techniques including genomics have helped reveal that 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 can control more than calcium homeostasis. It has widespread effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation, and can modulate immune responsiveness, and central nervous system function. Moreover, accumulating epidemiological and molecular evidence suggests that 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 acts as a chemopreventive agent against several malignancies including cancers of the prostate and colon. Here, we survey the most-recent findings and discuss their implications for the potential therapeutic uses of vitamin D analogues.