- Clifton, PM. Protein and Coronary Heart Disease: The Role of Different Protein Sources. Curr Atheroscler Rep.2011 Sep 13.
*Quick Summary of Study: This study offers concrete evidence to support the benefit of a low carbohydrate/ high plant protein diet in reducing the malignant affects of heart disease. This study was conducted using an animal model.
“Meat protein is associated with an increase in risk of heart disease. Recent data have shown that meat protein appeared to be associated with weight gain over 6.5ï¿½years, with 1ï¿½kg of weight increase per 125ï¿½g of meat per day. In the Nurses' Health Study, diets low in red meat, containing nuts, low-fat dairy, poultry, or fish, were associated with a 13% to 30% lower risk of CHD compared with diets high in meat. Low-carbohydrate diets high in animal protein were associated with a 23% higher total mortality rate whereas low-carbohydrate diets high in vegetable protein were associated with a 20% lower total mortality rate. Recent soy interventions have been assessed by the American Heart Association and found to be associated with only small reductions in LDL cholesterol. Although dairy intake has been associated with a lower weight and lower insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, the only long-term (6ï¿½months) dairy intervention performed so far has shown no effects on these parameters.” (1)
- Fung TT, Hu FB, Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Holmes MD. Low-carbohydrate diets, dietary approaches to stop hypertension-style diets, and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Sept 15;174(6):652-60.
*Quick Summary of Study: This study involved over 85,000 women with various diets and found conclusive evidence supporting the idea that a diet high in plant protein and fat and moderate in carbohydrate content was associated with a lower risk of estrogen receptor negative cancer.
“The authors prospectively examined the association between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score, overall, animal-based, and vegetable-based low-carbohydrate-diet scores, and major plant food groups and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in 86,621 women in the Nurses' Health Study. Diet scores were calculated by using data from up to 7 food frequency questionnaires, with follow-up from 1980 to 2006. The authors ascertained 5,522 incident cases of breast cancer, including 3,314 estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) cancers and 826 estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) cancers. After adjustment for potential confounders, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score was associated with a lower risk of ER- cancer (relative risk comparing extreme quintiles = 0.80, 95% confidence interval: 0.64, 1.01; P trend = 0.02). However, this was largely explained by higher intakes of fruits and vegetables. The authors also observed an inverse association between risk of ER- cancer and the vegetable-based, low-carbohydrate-diet score (corresponding relative risk = 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 1.01; P trend = 0.03). High total fruit and low-protein vegetable intakes were associated with a lower risk of ER- cancer (relative risk comparing extreme quintiles = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.55, 0.90; P trend = 0.005). No association was found between ER+ tumors and fruit and vegetable intakes. A diet high in fruits and vegetables, such as one represented by the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score, was associated with a lower risk of ER- breast cancer. In addition, a diet high in plant protein and fat and moderate in carbohydrate content was associated with a lower risk of ER- cancer.” (2)
- Neff LM, Culiner J, Cunningham-Rundles S, Seidman C, Meehan D, Maturi J, Wittkowski KM, Levine B,Breslow JL. Algal docosahexaenoic acid affects plasma lipoprotein particle size distribution in overweight and obese adults. J Nutr. 2011 Feb;141(2):207-13.
*Quick Summary of Study: Algal DHA supplementation resulted in potentially beneficial changes on plasma lipid levels and lipoprotein concentrations in obese adults thus, reducing cardiometabolic risk.
“Fish oils containing both EPA and DHA have been shown to have beneficial cardiovascular effects, but less is known about the independent effects of DHA. This study was designed to examine the effects of DHA on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and other biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in the absence of weight loss. In this randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, 36 overweight or obese adults were treated with 2 g/d of algal DHA or placebo for 4.5 mo. Markers of cardiovascular risk were assessed before and after treatment. In the DHA-supplemented group, the decrease in mean VLDL particle size (P â‰¤ 0.001) and increases in mean LDL (P â‰¤ 0.001) and HDL (P â‰¤ 0.001) particle sizes were significantly greater than changes in the placebo group. DHA supplementation also increased the concentrations of large LDL (P â‰¤ 0.001) and large HDL particles (P = 0.001) and decreased the concentrations of small LDL (P = 0.009) and medium HDL particles (P = 0.001). As calculated using NMR-derived data, DHA supplementation reduced VLDL TG (P = 0.009) and total TG concentrations (P = 0.006). Plasma IL-10 increased with DHA supplementation to a greater extent than placebo (P = 0.021), but no other significant changes were observed in glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, or markers of inflammation with DHA. In summary, DHA supplementation resulted in potentially beneficial changes in some markers of cardiometabolic risk, whereas other markers were unchanged.” (3)
- Nagpal R, Kaur A. Ecol Food Nutr. Synbiotic effect of various prebiotics on in vitro activities of probiotic lactobacilli. 2011 Jan-Feb;50(1):63-8.
*Quick Summary of Study: Inulin in the diet is a very effective prebiotic and it enhances the viability of lactobacilli in the gut.
“In the present study, five Lactobacillus strains were evaluated for their viability in presence of different prebiotics viz. inulin, oligofructose, lactulose, raftilose, and honey. The viability of lactobacilli was observed before and after 5 weeks of refrigerated storage. The doubling time varied from 5.2 hrs to 9.6 hrs. The lowest doubling time was for Lactobacillus plantarum M5 followed by L. plantarum Ch1 with inulin. Viability of lactobacilli was greatest with inulin. The growth and viability in presence of prebiotics were found to be strain-specific. Hence, it could be concluded that the addition of prebiotics have a significant effect on probiotics, and hence, a combination of suitable Lactobacillus strain(s) with a specific prebiotic could be a viable probiotic-based functional food approach in administering the beneficial bacteria in-vivo.” (4)